Saturday, August 24, 2019
Money Management Final-1 - Essay Example After analyzing own risk profile, the investment decisions will be made, that in which investment vehicle I need to invest. This report will focus on the investment strategy and objectives need to be adopted, difference between ETFs and the mutual funds and how to manage the portfolio risk in order to experience good flow in investing. Further, it will also take into consideration the financial instruments which are accessible for investments, the role and influence of the main players in the financial markets, relationship between the financial markets and the macroeconomic forces and the benefits and risks of investing in different investment vehicle. Analyzing Risk Profile All investors have contradictory attitudes towards risk, so when it comes to investing, it is essential that we need to judge our own risk profile including that the returns on my investments could fluctuate broadly from year to year and also how comfortable I am with the likelihood of losing money. Understandin g personal risk tolerance will provide assistance in selecting a suitable asset allocation. My asset allocation includes stock, mutual fund, cash and property. It depends broadly on the time horizon and my risk tolerance ability. So, in order to judge own risk profile, following points need to be taken into consideration: Investment Experience The investment experience will indicate my understanding of financial markets such as just started investing or know the basics of investing or investing for several years or have enough knowledge of financial markets and have been making investment decisions boldly (See Appendix A). So, my experience is that I understand the fundamentals of investing. Risk Tolerance In order to ascertain an investment strategy that suits my risk profile, first I need to think about the likelihood that my investment value may decline although this may be temporary and must be prepared to admit the probability of negative return at any time for the purpose of l ikely higher long term returns. It will focus on the factors that whether I will neglect short term losses or interested in collecting regular income from investment or long term growth in investment value or want protection against inflation. So, I consider neglecting any short term losses and if in any case, the investment value fell by 20% in a short time then I would like to hold the investment and sell nothing (See Appendix B). Investment Goals and Objectives The investment goals include capital growth, purchase of new car, to purchase a new plot of land, to get a house and a young childÃ¢â¬â¢s education in future. My investment goals are for long term, so I afford to take some risk for a higher return. My investment objectives include investing in mutual funds because of its diversification benefits, property and stocks because they offer higher returns than fixed interests. It also includes investing in cash because it is highly liquid
Friday, August 23, 2019
Compare a presidential system with a parliamentary system. Choose one country that represents each system. Explain their legislative, executive and judicial br - Essay Example He stays in office as head of government for six years with no re-election. His functions primarily revolve around the implementation of laws, policies, and, development plans for his country. In the parliamentary system adapted by Great Britain, there is a fusion in the three branches of government. The executive branch of Britain is composed of the Queen who is considered the chief of state and the Prime Minister as head of government. The Prime Minister is elected by the members of the legislative branch. He has no definite term of office as the conduct of elections is decided on by Parliament. The legislative branch of government of Mexico has two chambers-the upper (Senate) and the lower (Chamber of Deputies). They have the power to pass laws, ordinance, impose taxes, declare war, and approve the national budget. Some members of the Senate are voted through direct popular vote, some are voted per state. The members of the lower chamber are voted per district based on proportional representation. The legislative branch of Great Britain, called the House of Parliament, is also bicameral-composed of the House of Lords and the House of Commons. This branch serves as the supreme legislative body of Britain and its territories. The House of Lords is largely made up of appointed members, with a small percentage who are voted by hereditary peerage. The members of the House of Commons are elected via popular vote every four or five years. The distinct feature about British Parliament is that they control the executive branch of the government. As opposed to the Legislative branch of government in the presidential system, the executive and legislative branches of government are independent from each other. The judicial branch of government in Mexico is divided into the federal and state systems. It has a Supreme Court of Justice composed of magistrates and auxiliary judges who
Thursday, August 22, 2019
The Divide Between God and Man Essay Religion is a common theme in poetry. In the Norton anthology Modern Poems, several poems from many eras discuss or refer to religion. Six in particular show a progression of manÃ¢â¬â¢s slow destruction of his relationship with God and the world. Ã¢â¬Å"Imperial AdamÃ¢â¬ by A. D. Hope begins this sequence by the unique way sin is introduced into the world. William Butler YeatÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Second ComingÃ¢â¬ is an apocalyptic interpretation of what might be considered the antichrist. All together, these religious poems weave a tale of sadness and despair for mankind as they fall further and further from each other and from God. Ã¢â¬Å"Imperial AdamÃ¢â¬ introduces the Biblical Adam just as he has awakened from his Ã¢â¬Å"surgeryÃ¢â¬ to find his companion. God has blessed him with a female because Ã¢â¬Å"It is not good for him to live aloneÃ¢â¬ (line 8). However, instead of viewing her as a soul mate and companion for the glory of God, Adam sees Eve in an immediately sexual light. The poem makes use of sexual imagery such as Ã¢â¬Å"golden breasts,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"plump gourd,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"virile root,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"delicious pulp of the forbidden fruit,Ã¢â¬ (lines 13, 17, 19). The sexual experience is described in stanzaÃ¢â¬â¢s seven and eight, but instead of being treated in beautiful terms, it is described as animalistic, loud and overly passionate. Just as the Bible story goes, Eve gets pregnant and gives birth. The child, Cain, in the Bible goes on to kill his brother out of jealousy and becomes the ancestral father of a lineage of outcasts banished and cursed by God and spurned by mankind. This outcome is the focus of the last stanza of the poem. The baby is not immediately seen as a darling expression of love, but his birth is described in less complimentary terms: Ã¢â¬Å"Between her legs a pigmy face appear,/And the first murderer lay upon the earthÃ¢â¬ (lines 43-44). The first attention paid to the baby, at this point a true innocent, is that he is the future murderer of his brother who creates the schism between God and man. Another Biblical story that is alluded to in poetry is the parable of the prodigal son. According to this parable, a wayward youth takes his inheritance, leaves his home, and frivolously wastes his money. He returns home to find the love of his father still strong in spite of his sins and despite otherÃ¢â¬â¢s anger at him. In Ã¢â¬Å"The Prodigal SonÃ¢â¬ by Rudyard Kipling, the story is the same, but not exact. True, the son has gone off to lavish living; he says Ã¢â¬Å"I wasted my substance, I know I did,/On riotous living, so I did,/But thereÃ¢â¬â¢s nothing on record to show I did/Worse than my betters have doneÃ¢â¬ (lines 25-28). The young man realizes his faults, but also questions his treatment by his family. He feels that his sins are no worse than any other, and finds it his label as a Ã¢â¬Å"monster of moral depravityÃ¢â¬ (line 23) to be quite unfair. Indeed it seems his behavior is not as horrible as the consequent behavior of his family, specifically of his own brother. In this poem, the reader learns that despite the hard knocks the young man experienced, he did work to maintain himself. The young man, unlike the Biblical prodigal son, does not remain home. He finds their attitudes toward him more oppressive than the hear life he had lived. He leaves with a warm salutation to his parents, but cannot quite find the same feelings for his brother, whom he calls a Ã¢â¬Å"houndÃ¢â¬ (line 48). The rhythm and rhyme of the poem are a bit misleading, in that they suggest a less serious nature than, say, the Biblical story. However, the messages are eerily the same. Like the ultimate reality of the Biblical Cain and the son in Ã¢â¬Å"Imperial Adam,Ã¢â¬ family relationships are strained from the beginning, particularly, it seems, between brothers. The young man doubts the relationship he has with his father is worth putting up with his sulking, angry brother. This relationship has an obvious figurative meaning as well as a literal one. The young man doubting his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship can be read as a person doubting the existence of a kind and gently God. In Gerald Manley HopkinsÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Å"Thou art indeed just, Lord, if I contend,Ã¢â¬ the idea that man may doubt the nature of God or become infirm in his faith or religion is expressed in sonnet form. The poem begins with the speaker asserting that he knows God is just and fair with him and acknowledges that his own ways in the world are also just and fair. His question is, and this question has undoubtedly been repeated countless times throughout the years, Ã¢â¬Å"Why do sinnersÃ¢â¬â¢ ways prosper? And why must/Disappointment all I endeavour end? Ã¢â¬ (lines 3-4). His problems are echoed throughout time: Ã¢â¬Å"Why do bad things happen to good people? Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"Why do bad things happen to me? Ã¢â¬ The speaker, through his own failures and disappointment comes to question if God treats everyone fairly and kindly, what is the point of being continually good? He points out that sinful behavior is much more prevalent than his own goodly works: Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, the sots and thralls of lust/Do in spare hours more thrive than I that spend,/Sir, life upon thy causeÃ¢â¬ (lines 7-9). He laments that his good words does not seem to Ã¢â¬Å"wakeÃ¢â¬ or enlighten anyone. Ultimately, the speaker begs God to send his roots rain, this metaphor being that he wants God to send him proof that what he is doing is worthwhile. Of course, as most theologians will attest to, God is not in the business of proving himself; faith is the name of the game. The man, who can be representative of all mankind, is losing faith in God and in his own ability to see the benefit of a holy life and godly works. As man slowly seems to split from God, man is also splitting from mankind. God, in the Bible, loves all men and wants them to love one another. Unfortunately, almost from the beginning of time, this has not been the case. In Adrienne RichÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Yom Kippur, 1984,Ã¢â¬ the speaker, a Jew, reflects upon the loneliness and solitude she feels as the result of being a Jew in a sea of Christians. While this is not a holocaust poem per se (though some images may suggest this) and the date in the title does not suggest HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s annihilation, a resonance of fear permeates the poem. The speaker asks, Ã¢â¬Å"What would it mean not to feel lonely or afraid/far from your own or those you have called your own? Ã¢â¬ (lines 2-3). Subsequent lines make it clear that many other people live solitary existences for reasons other than religion. She names women and homosexuals as groups that have also been persecuted by people, and sadly, by religion and churches. The spirited narrator urges all feeling solitary to Ã¢â¬Å"Find someone like yourself. Find others. /Agree you will never desert each other/Understand that any rift among you/means power to those who want to do you inÃ¢â¬ (lines46-49). Unfortunately, the world has not achieved this. She mentions the modern crisis between the Arabs and the Jews in the last stanza as an example of how Ã¢â¬Å"souls crash togetherÃ¢â¬ (line 120). The speaker constantly expresses her fear of solitude, which can be interpreted as meaning solitude from others or even solitude from God. Though Rich is not necessarily known as a religious poet, the message rings true. Men divided from one another will fall, and God seems nowhere in this chaos. Furthering the idea that God seems lost from man and the world is Philip LarkinÃ¢â¬â¢s poem Ã¢â¬Å"A Poem for Sunday. Ã¢â¬ This poem is a first person monologue of a person who is drawn to a quiet and empty church. His journey through the silent place is, thus, shared step-by-step with the reader. He listens to the sounds of the heavy door shutting and observes the heavy brown and polished brass colors of the sanctuary. Ultimately, though he visits the church often, he stops to Ã¢â¬Å"reflect the place was not worth stopping forÃ¢â¬ (line 18) and that his visits seem to all end in this way. He wonders about a time when people stop going to churches or places of worship at all. This speaker and his thoughts seem to represent the feeling that many hold in his society. He sees little interest in the church as a religious house of worship, but more as an oddity the architecture of a bygone era. He surmises that Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦we shall keep/a few cathedrals chronically on show,Ã¢â¬ (lines 23-24) only for a spectacle, but clearly separated from their holy purpose. The fifth stanza shows the gradual decline of the importance of the church as the speaker wonders who will be the last to ever enter its doors for worship: Ã¢â¬Å"A shape less recognizable each week,/A purpose more obscure. I wonder who/Will be the last, the very last, to seek this place for what it was;Ã¢â¬ (lines 37-40). The tone of the poem seems sad and remorseful, as if the speaker recognizes the sadness and futility of an age in which people do not seek God or have use for ore even remember the use for churches or cathedrals. The last poem in this series marks a specific time of the beginning of the end of the world. Many future seekers try to pinpoint the end of the world. While nobody has been successful, it is clear that many religions agree on some type of coming or second coming of the diety. Ã¢â¬Å"The Second ComingÃ¢â¬ by William Butler Yeats is an apocalyptic interpretation of the coming of not God, but Evil. The speaker begins by discussing a world out of balance in which Ã¢â¬Å"Things fall apartÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"The ceremony of innocence is drowned;/Ã¢â¬ (lines 3, 6). It seems to warn of a time in which society is so far from God and in which things are so bad, that nothing can be reversed or saved. Ã¢â¬Å"Surely the Second Coming is at hand! Ã¢â¬ (line 10). Unfortunately, the speakersÃ¢â¬â¢ joyful words turn to fear as he envisions not the return of Christ, but of the Sphinx, the mythological beast that taunted and killed many men. This second coming is a beast that has Ã¢â¬Å"A gaze blank and pitiless as the sunÃ¢â¬ (line 15). This beast has been awakened and Ã¢â¬Å"its hour come round at last,/Slouches towards Bethlehem to be born? Ã¢â¬ (lines 21-22). This fearful question hints at a world that will be destroyed by evil instead of reclaimed by God. It suggest that mankind now has no hope of salvation. The poems in this paper all show a progression of man away from God and towards evil. Beginning with Adam, the father of murderous Cain, this symbolic journey moves through the dissolution of the family, the manÃ¢â¬â¢s disillusionment and loss of faith in God, the separation of man from each other, the decay of the church, and finally the birth of ultimate evil. Human beings have, indeed, fallen from God in each of these ways. The poems presented here are the attempts of the poets to capture these feelings and emotions and express them to the reader. The body of religious poetry includes far more poems on a similar theme. Because the poems hail from many time periods and from many authors, it can be assumed that the fears and suggestions in these poems are not limited to one era or to one author or country. Unfortunately, the six poems, Ã¢â¬Å"Imperial AdamÃ¢â¬ by A. D. Hope, Ã¢â¬Å"The Prodigal SonÃ¢â¬ by Rudyard Kipling, Ã¢â¬Å"Thou art indeed just, Lord, if I contendÃ¢â¬ by Gerald Hanley Hopkins, Ã¢â¬Å"Yom Kippur, 1984Ã¢â¬ by Adrienne Rich, Ã¢â¬Å"A Poem for SundayÃ¢â¬ by Phillip Larkin, and Ã¢â¬Å"The Second ComingÃ¢â¬ by William Butler Yeats all paint a bleak outlook for mankind and his relationship with his God and with mankind.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Existentialism is a Humanism Essay In Existentialism is a Humanism, Sartre explains that in human beings, Ã¢â¬Å"existence precedes essence. Ã¢â¬ Meaning, humans are created without any purpose, but with growth and maturing they find their purpose. J. P. Sartre gives the example of the paper clip, noting that this inanimate object was created with the intent of a purpose. Therefore, that idea lead to itÃ¢â¬â¢s creation. He uses this example to demonstrate Ã¢â¬Å" essence precedes existence. Ã¢â¬ He states, Ã¢â¬Å" man is nothing else, but what he makes of himself. Ã¢â¬ Simply put, us as humans are first born than we create our own paths in our lives and who we shall be in life. This explains that through our actions and decisions we make in our lives, molds us into the beings we become. Further mentioning that we are the choices we make, are we responsible for who are as individuals because of that. Sartre goes on to say there are two kinds of existentialists. One of them being Christians, Catholics, or people who believe in God. As well as atheistic existentialists who do not believe in God such as himself. However, one thing they share is both groups believe in the idea of Ã¢â¬Å" existence precedes essence. Ã¢â¬ But, those who believe in God believes God was a superior power who created people with a purpose, which ties into the idea of the paper clip. With that being said, though men has diverse traits and characteristics, they share the same basic qualities because if human nature. On the other hand, the atheistic view believes God is nonexistent and a man starts as nothing and later defines himself. Therefore, Sartre states, Ã¢â¬Å"There is no determinism, man is free, man is freedomÃ¢â¬ ¦. We have no values or commands to turn to which legitimize our conduct. Ã¢â¬ In other words, we have no excuses, and we are entirely responsible for our decisions. Therefore, there is no God to provide guidance on the proper way to live and we must find that out through our choices. He goes on the idea of subjectivism, saying that one manÃ¢â¬â¢s acts creates the image of every man as a whole. Which, develops the idea of what men ought to be as individuals. Sartre also replies that, Ã¢â¬Å"it is impossible for man to transcend human subjectivity. Ã¢â¬ He isnÃ¢â¬â¢t saying Ã¢â¬Å"I prefer subjectivity over objectivity,Ã¢â¬ heÃ¢â¬â¢s asking, Ã¢â¬Å"how can we possibly not be subjective? Ã¢â¬ Even the religious individual who believes that morality is absolute and comes from God must, at some point, choose to believe that this is the case. Our responsibility is a blessing and a curse. It leads us to feel things like anguish and despair. We experience anguish in the face of our subjectivity, because by choosing what we are to do, we Ã¢â¬Å"choose for everyoneÃ¢â¬ . When you make a decision you are saying Ã¢â¬Å"this is how anyone ought to behave given these circumstances. Ã¢â¬ Many people donÃ¢â¬â¢t feel anguish, but this is because they are Ã¢â¬Å"fleeing from it. Ã¢â¬ If you donÃ¢â¬â¢t feel a sense of anxiety when you make decisions, itÃ¢â¬â¢s because you are forgetting about your Ã¢â¬Å"total and deep responsibilityÃ¢â¬ toward yourself and all of humanity. Despair arises because we only have power to change things that are within our power to change, and there is a lot we cannot change. With that being said, reality is unbiased and out of our control, except for small aspects of it here and there. We despair because we can never have full control of the future. However, we are the rulers of our lives, we take the responsibility of our actions and ourselves in general. Regardless of what you believe, this cannot be any other way.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Management Styles at Ford and Nissan In this assignment I have highlighted different management styles of Automobile industries by considering their motivational and organizational Theory of management. I have explained some social factors and also the Impact of technology on management and leadership behavior. The first part of the assignment discuss the introduction of both companies .i.e. Ford and Nissan, their management behavior and impact of such behavior on business performance. Than motivational theories how it changes the behavior of company and last impact of technology on the performance, structure and layout of the companies. INTRODUCTION In todays competitive market managers have to perform various roles in the organization. Their handling of different situation depends on their management styles. In the motivational theory the top leadership and the executive management understands the active needs active for employees motivation and give the purpose for being motivated. Organizational theory, for a successful organization, focus on the establishment of coordination that how management and employees by strengthening themselves can achieve the common organizational goals PURPOSE OF ASSIGNMENT Everything is done for some definite motive; here we are making our assignment for a definite purpose. The completion and submission of this assignment is an integral part of Advance Diploma in Business Management from London Essex College. Through assignment students will familiarize with management practices and behavior role that they have to play during their professional careers The students not only acclimatize themselves to the corporate environment but also learn to assume responsibility, co-operation and teamwork the hallmarks of modern management and the most important we have to pass our module as well. APPROACH As for as approach is concerned here we applied the management thoughts and theories of our respective companies. We applied different academic models, academic research, class room notes, our personal experience, industry publication, means both primary and secondary research on automobile industry as s well as review and analysis of it. INTRODUCTION OF FORD AND NISSAN MOTORS FORD MOTOR The Ford Motor Company is an American multinational corporation based in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. It is the third largest automaker based on worldwide vehicle sale in US after General Motors and Toyota. The automaker was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16, 1903. In addition to the Ford, Lincoln, and Mercury brands, Ford also owns a small stake in Mazda in Japan and Aston Martin in the UK. Fords former UK subsidiaries Jaguar and Land Rover were sold to Tata Motors of India in March 2008. In 2010 Ford sold Volvo to Geely Automobile. Ford will discontinue the Mercury brand at the end of 2010. Ford introduced methods for large-scale manufacturing of cars and large-scale management of an industrial workforce using elaborately engineered manufacturing sequences typified by moving assembly lines. Henry Fords methods came to be known around the world as Fordism by 1914, he is also father of modern assembly line used in mass production NISSAN Nissan is a Japanese Car Company whose trade mark is Datsun. The head offices are in Japan. Nissan was used to be Japans second-Largest car company. It is an automotive, financial services and engineering industry. It produced automobile, out board motors and forklift trucks. About 176,000 employees are working at Nissan. In 1986, Nissan become the first Japanese automobile company which set the production plant in Europe at Sunderland. It is important to know the companys management philosophy, values, vision, goals, and social environment. The culture depicts the type of leadership .communication and groups dynamics within the organisatiion. Impact of Management Behavior and Organizational Culture of Ford Under the new management of Alan Mulally CEO of Ford motor company enhance overall companys performance . His management can be summed up in these points: Learn whats going on and how things work. Set goals based on good information. Communicate these goals to everyone involved. Create a process for communicating progress and results. Successful leadership hinges on such crucial skills as communication, collaboration and judgment. The CEO Alan Mulally endorsed these skills in an extraordinarily high-pressure environment. He changed Fords culture since he joined Ford and has fostered cooperation among divisions and regions that used to compete with each other for resources. Hes also modeled transparency, meeting regularly with employees and instituting a dashboard system that makes key metrics about sales and market share more visible and precise to the organization. Ford created a culture in which telling the truth, however painful it may be, gets rewarded. Every week Ford review their Business Plan with the higher management just top gather report on how well Ford meeting their targets and organisation goal. Impact on Business In 2010, Ford forecast a 2010 operating profit and posted $2.7 billion in net income for last year Ford recovered the benefits ,after three annual losses the full-year profit was Ford first after 2006. More importantly, Ford gained U.S. market share for the first year since 1995, with new models such as the revamped Taurus. The likes of GM and Chrysler, meanwhile, reorganized with federal aid. Fords profit and cash from operations have been improving with better pricing and cost savings. 6- MANAGEMENT APPROACH OF FORD MOTOR COMPANY Ford Motor Company requires all its employees to be an expert , which encourages specialization. Thus, Ford is a functional organization. Each employee reports to a functional manager. At the same time, they understand the importance of a focus on the final product. As a result, a matrix organization is created where each employee also reports to a chief engineer who represents the interests of the customer. Meetings are conducted every two days to coordinate the relations between chief engineers and functional managers. Fords structure also has other formal mechanisms facilitating communication among functions, such as module development teams, which are cross-functional teams that bring together product and production engineers. Through this structure, Ford strikes a balance between being highly traditional and bureaucratic while at the same time agile and innovative. Ford culture and structure constantly emphasis on learning and continuous improvement .All employees from different levels are expected to analyse the actual and standard performance and if there is any problem there, than understand the cause of all problems. A theoretical framework is made in respect with cause and effect relationship, means what factors causes that problems, how this problem can be solved, when this problem will solved and how long it take to solve that problem. Without such understanding, they believe, improvements are not likely. Their culture emphasizes rethinking of how things are done, and sayings such as never be satisfied and theres gotta be a better way are part of their daily life. For example, if a car comes down the assembly line with a defect, fixing the defect is not the priority. Instead, the emphasis is on understanding the cause of the defect so it is not repeated. In addition to facilitating learning at the individual and team levels, they take steps to make sure that what is learned is shared with the rest of the organization. This is achieved by putting implied knowledge into writing. Traditionally management structure was vertical where chain of command and ultimate decisions made by top management. Ford Company started the mass production with automotive tools in late1920 with standard products, special purpose machine, and standards task and efficient division of labour. The moving assembly line is the symbol of Fordism at Ford Company. Motivation techniques at Ford Motor Company New management of in 2006, turnaround plan that called for closing plants, cutting jobs and dropping some of its models. The said management removed obstacles, put new managers in place and forced feuding parts of the company to work together. Moreover the new management introduced cards printed out for every employee exhorting people to work together and accelerate development of new products Ford Motor Company uses a Positive Reinforcement Technique i.e. the ford employees are rewarded for the favorable behavior they perform according to the wishes of their manager. Impact of Management Behavior and Organizational Culture of NISSAN Nissan Company is very clear about its goals and objectives. The management of company does not believe on traditional but have their own knowledge and expertise and powerful flow of information that runs through divisions of business areas. Their strategy is simple, inspire effective performance and create value for the customers. The management regards individual vision, employee performance, commit action plans and same management practices are entrenched at every level of company. Workforce diversity is also important element, when people from different regions, cultures worked together definitely they share different thoughts but on the other way often healthy conflicts also aroused but the efficient management practice resolved that conflicts, results in operation within Nissan making the process active and direct so diverse workforce brings solutions and leads company towards new direction. Employees of Nissan share their thoughts and relationship with the employees based on mutual respect and trust. A new communication channel helps the employees to express the ideas in more effective manner. This is to somewhat the true culture of any progress company. Management Approach of Nissan Management approach of company is very good, employees are treated like the assets of the company, good friendly environment, and worker participation in decision making is the proof of that company is also practicing the impact of different management theories like Hawthorne studies where workers productivity tends upon human behavior. There is equal employment opportunity, workforce diversity, Global code of conduct within the organization, ANALYSIS OF FORD NISSAN STRUCTURE Companys Structure Company structure arrange people and job so that work can be performed for the success of any company as many writers pointed about the importance of organization structure and its relationship with company strategy, technology, environment and culture. Burns and Stalker (1961) concluded that if an organization is to achieve maximum performance than its structure must fit with or match the rate of change in its environments. Handy (1990-1993) has discussed the importance of culture in relation to organization design and structure. Organizations structure of Nissan Nissan Company has announced to introduce new organizational structure to guide Nissan. Employees and the top management understand the company structure and express their opinions easily. Traditional car company (FORD) has traditional hierarchical organizational structure that means each employees role within the organization and relationship of employees. Traditional company has narrow spans of control most important decision will be made by senior management. In the 20th century, company grows bigger and they have command and control of the organization due to the globalization and technology. Advantages of hierarchical structures All employees authority and responsibility will be defined. Specific managers and hierarchical environment motivate effectively. Employees will be loyal. Disadvantages of Hierarchical structures Company will be bureaucratic and respond slowly to changing customer needs. Horizontal communication will be poor. Usually departments make decisions so business decision will be slowly implemented. Companys culture of both organizations Culture is the sum of the beliefs and values that shape norms of behaviour and dictate the ways things get done. There are several continuums that help define an organizations culture. Is the organization driven by results and achievement, or relationships and people? Does the organization have an internal focus, or an external focus? Is the organization adaptive and flexible, or is it structured and stable?Ã Ã Role of organizational culture plays in safety issues. It leads to innovation and strategic thinking. Leadership is also important cultures that every company can know that leadership affect culture. Leaders change or create culture. Cultural leadership apparently has some features in the car production companies where cultural leaders have multiple cultural leaders of the same time. All companies performance shows acceptable trade. These are traditional companies but they are growing business in the world. Organisational theories in management behaviour System theory I have chosen system theory to explain two of these companies. It was developed in 1950s and it was a biological system such as human being. It is most simple level and takes inputs. Basic Elements of a System Inputs Organization or Outputs Transformation system Feedback Boundaries and environment Objectivities and goals Organization as a system Systems theory views an organization as a complex set of dynamically intertwined and interconnected elements, including inputs, processes, outputs, feedback loops, and the environment. Any change in one element causes changes in other elements.Ã Ã System theory helps to learn the company. Such as Maslows hierarchy needs. Creating doctrines of participation. Modern including of technology. Personal mastery. Mental models. Building shared vision. Team learning. Systems thinking A modern company as like Nissan should have followings characteristics. System view point Dynamic process Multi-motivated Multi-disciplinary Adaptive Probabilistic Descriptive The systems approach views organization as a system composed of interconnected and thus mutually dependent sub-systems. These sub-systems can have their own sub-sub-systems. A system can be perceived as composed of some components, functions and processes (Albrecht, 1983). Thus, the organization consists of the following three basic elements (Bakke, 1959 ):Ã Ã Motivation in practice at two car companies Motivation is the most important factor which increases the performance and productivity of a company. Company implements many motivational activities such as rewards (salary, commission, and bonuses), treating the employees very well, taking an interest in the employees personal life, giving a chance to everyone at the company, building and teaching new skills and making the work interesting. Motivated workforce in Nissan is the greatest asset of the company; actually the performance of company reflects the attitudes, beliefs and passion of employees toward work. Company is motivating the employees but different ways both intrinsically and extrinsically. Promotion and empowerment are few examples, when people are empowered, their belongingness with company increased, result in increased in the productivity. Promotion is based on performance based not on seniority based system but in fact on performance based as well as there is compensation system for excellent performance of employees, this is good practice of corporate gurus of company MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES Research shows how we can motivate employees in a company. Many motivational theories and models could be employed to help to motivate the staff at any companies. Highly motivated people will give good results will in turn help to achieve the organization desire goals. Motivating staff in the car manufacturing industry is most important factor of running a business. Abraham Maslow developed a motivation theory of human needs in 1954. He mentioned that humans have a different variety of needs. Firstly, humans satisfy their basic needs then try to satisfy their other needs. A company should consider the needs of all its employees. Maslow noted five basic needs and ordered them in a hierarchy from higher to lower. Self Actualization Needs Esteem Needs Achievement Challenging Job Belongingness Needs Status Job Title Security Needs Friendship Friends in Group Physiological Needs Stability Pension Plan Sustenance Basic Salary Maslow Need Hierarchy One research study by James R. Lindner at Ohio University shows that factors which influence the motivation of employees at a company. These findings are interesting; work and good pay are influencing factors on employees at work. Further influential reward systems include job enlargement, job enrichment, promotions, internal and external stipends, monetary and non monetary compensation. These should all be considered as they have been shown to motivate employees at work.Ã Ã It means that an employees behavior will change as their needs are satisfied. According to the Maslow theory, an organization should design their system to motivate its people; pay will help to satisfy the basic need.Ã Ã By applying the Taylor approach of scientific management we can apply the abovementioned theory, effective hiring, training, and compensation incentives, work achievements fulfilled the needs of workers. American Ford company used this technique in assembly line of production for more production and efficient utilization of resources. When worker are provided good working conditions, fresh air, than their basic need is fulfilled, but they cant be motivated until provided by security need and later on when their primary needs are fulfilled than they shift to other needs. In contrast with company .i.e. is also fulfilling the above mentioned theory as for as concern of employees. it is fulfilling their basic need by offering handsome salary packages, based on performance when appraisal is made employee moves to next stage. The X and Y theory was developed by Douglas McGregor in 1960. Theory X suggests that managers want to direct and control their employees. It argues that employees dont like work, so managers or supervisors should punish them for this. On the other hand, according to theory Y, employees are self motivated, like to do their work and wish to achieve the organizations goals.Ã Ã These are some ideas to motivate people at two companies. (Nissan and Ford) Motivating through work design Motivating through participation Motivating through targets If these two companies do not motivate its employees, commonly, some problems will occur. Absenteeism Wasting time Gossip Bucking of the system Challenging of policy Bureaucracy. Recruitment and selection report of company is analyzed that how can it maintain and carried out the staff. Some factors are including recruiting the followings factors; The business growth Filling the vacancies by resignation or termination and retirement. Internal promotion Analysis of Social Factors As for as corporate social responsibilities both companies playing an important role in the society of UK. Nissan and Ford will invest Ã £2 billion of worth investment in production and R D of low carbon and electric car across the England and Wales. The motive of Nissan is environmental friendly and enriching people life. When the company analyses the social factors, we should consider the followings factors. In management behavior, Social factors also influence such as the groups to which the team be longs and social status. In a group or team, several persons interact to influence the decisions. Ford and Nissan companies should consider the social factors. PESTEL analysis will explain the social factors to make the decisions. They are: Sales are relationship driven Customer expectations Relationship management is industry demand. Life time customers Customers want solution to the problems. Global /multinational company. Cultural mind set Developing countries are different levels. Different levels of service. If Ford and Nissan implement the socialization (Group and team) very well, they will get following possible outcomes, such as Job satisfaction Role clarity High work motivation Understanding of culture and perceived control High job involvement Committed to organization Tenure High performance Internationalized values. Actions will be made to encourage ethical and social behavior. Be realistic in setting values and goals regarding employee relationships Encourage input from organization members regarding appropriate values and practices for implementing the culture Opt for a strong culture that encourages and rewards diversity and principled dissent Provide training on adopting and implementing the organizations valuesÃ Ã Impact of Technology on management behavior and work force Many of the impacts of Information Technology are straightforward. But they are not necessarily obvious, nor are they trivial (Jack Nilles, Centre for Future Research)Ã Ã IT impacts on Ford and Nissan companies performance and productivity. IT provides organizational and financial benefits for companies. It is changing to business landscape. All companies cultures and business strategies use IT. Business strategy collapsing time and distance, enabling electronic commerce. Organization Culture encouraging the free flow of information. Organization Structures making networking and virtual corporations a reality Management Processes providing support for complex decision making processes. Work dramatically changing the nature of professional and now managerial work. The workplace allowing work from home and on the move, as in telework .Ã Ã With the technological development UK car industry is one the leading car industry as Ford, producing a third of its global engine requirement at two UK locations and Nissans Sunderland plant, which is set to be a European hub for battery and electric vehicle production. The combination of investment in British brands and investment in the countrys personnel and plants by foreign companies also brings significant benefits to the full breadth of the UK automotive industry KEY ISSUES The key issue of Nissan is to build the corporate image and foundation in highly competitive environment and is assuming earthquake (EQ) as the most critical catastrophe. While continuous innovation, customers expectations, changing mix, management of diverse workforce are key issues of Ford Company Some of the key issues are as follows. Global production and competition. Consumers spending patterns Emerging Markets Health Care and environmental issues. Foreign Exchange rates Conclusion The management styles can be different in different organization but these management styles should bring great achievement of the organizational goals. By adapting right style of management and leadership in an organization the facilitation of working leadership between various entities of the organization is possible. Thus by comparing the overall management behavior and the structure of the organization for both Ford and Nissan I totally agree that Ford is better than Nissan in all ways. As for as UK car industry is concerned, it is very different as it perceived in 1970`s because majority of British brands are now owned by non British motors group of foreign investors, on the other hand, Aston Martin, more recently owned by Ford. Governmental policies are one the reason of decline in the decline of automobile industry in UK, so government should encourage domestic production and reduce the tariff and taxes.
The Development of Ã the Novel and Characters Ã In the novel Ethan Frome, by Edith Wharton, the character of Ethan Frome plays an important role in the development of the rest of the book. He has several character traits which distinguish him from the other main characters. Also, there are many factors which play against him throughout the novel. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The physical appearance of Ethan Frome played a significant part in creating his character. He was a tall, thin man. He had dark colored hair and dark eyes. He seemed a little rough around the edges and the scar on the side of his face was another of his distinguishing marks. At the very beginning of the book, he is 52 years old, but is described as looking much older than that. Throughout the main part of the book, which is a flashback, Frome is in his 20's. After the sledding accident with Mattie, he is left with bad vision in his right eye, which causes him trouble sometimes. Ethan Frome stutters and speaks in abbreviated forms sometimes. Most of the people in the town and in the novel speak in abbreviated forms. The actual town itself and the surroundings of Frome are harsh and cold, especially in winter when the book takes place. These harsh surroundings make Frome who he is and give him a "careless powerful look". Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Speech also renders some importance in this novel. A few examples of abbreviated words are: "Wurst kind", and "More'n enough", and lastly "Oh, I ain't afr'd". All of these slang words and also many more were used throughout the novel. This misuse of words shows that Frome and the other characters were not well educated. The work was more important than learning and also, Ethan Frome's p... ...im. As they stood in each others arms, they experienced a sense of ease that neither of them had ever felt before. They had led hard lives and this was the end. Theirs dreams were crushed, yet these moments were very important in the course of their lives. This was also the point in which they decided that if they couldn't live with each other, they wouldn't live at all. They decided to commit suicide mutually, and failed. It may have been better off if they had succeeded, because they led miserable lives after the accident. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The novel Ethan Frome, by Edith Wharton, created a vivid character image for the actual character of Ethan Frome. His role was depicted by physical appearance, speech, behavior and motivation, response and change, worst life experience, and best life experience. All of these themes help develop the novel and other characters. Essay on Wharton's Ethan Frome: Development of the Novel and Characters The Development of Ã the Novel and Characters Ã In the novel Ethan Frome, by Edith Wharton, the character of Ethan Frome plays an important role in the development of the rest of the book. He has several character traits which distinguish him from the other main characters. Also, there are many factors which play against him throughout the novel. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The physical appearance of Ethan Frome played a significant part in creating his character. He was a tall, thin man. He had dark colored hair and dark eyes. He seemed a little rough around the edges and the scar on the side of his face was another of his distinguishing marks. At the very beginning of the book, he is 52 years old, but is described as looking much older than that. Throughout the main part of the book, which is a flashback, Frome is in his 20's. After the sledding accident with Mattie, he is left with bad vision in his right eye, which causes him trouble sometimes. Ethan Frome stutters and speaks in abbreviated forms sometimes. Most of the people in the town and in the novel speak in abbreviated forms. The actual town itself and the surroundings of Frome are harsh and cold, especially in winter when the book takes place. These harsh surroundings make Frome who he is and give him a "careless powerful look". Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Speech also renders some importance in this novel. A few examples of abbreviated words are: "Wurst kind", and "More'n enough", and lastly "Oh, I ain't afr'd". All of these slang words and also many more were used throughout the novel. This misuse of words shows that Frome and the other characters were not well educated. The work was more important than learning and also, Ethan Frome's p... ...im. As they stood in each others arms, they experienced a sense of ease that neither of them had ever felt before. They had led hard lives and this was the end. Theirs dreams were crushed, yet these moments were very important in the course of their lives. This was also the point in which they decided that if they couldn't live with each other, they wouldn't live at all. They decided to commit suicide mutually, and failed. It may have been better off if they had succeeded, because they led miserable lives after the accident. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The novel Ethan Frome, by Edith Wharton, created a vivid character image for the actual character of Ethan Frome. His role was depicted by physical appearance, speech, behavior and motivation, response and change, worst life experience, and best life experience. All of these themes help develop the novel and other characters.
Monday, August 19, 2019
Cyprus A TIME TO REMEMBER Experience cautions us that irreparable damage could be done by those who somehow seem to regard Cyprus as a dazzling intellectual challenge and fail to put human faces behind the issues. Of one thing we can be sure: They will not be around when their ill-conceived paper glory is blown away in the storm that is bound to follow. It has been 35 years since the stationing on the island of a UN peace-keeping force that could prevent neither a secret invasion by Greece nor the continuation of the entire range of faits accomplis created by force over the next 11 years. KORKMAZ HAKTANIR Founding Member of the Cyprus Foundation It was September, still warm in daytime, but a welcome cool descended on the central plain by nightfall. The window panes had cracks in them and there were bullet holes on the walls. The house was on what used to be the northern edge of the Turkish quarter. No one had lived on the second floor since it had come under gunfire from a tall and ugly building down the street occupied by Greek Cypriots. I was the first tenant after many years. When I began, in this way, to live in Northern Cyprus more than twenty years ago, my neighbor was an elderly lady who had not seen the sea for eight years after 1963. In the afternoon, she sat on the porch in the shade of the lemon tree in her garden and watched over her grandchildren. Nalan hanÃ ½m and her family had survived those traumatic years in caves, in tents and in enclaves into which Turkish Cypriots had been squeezed, leaving behind loved ones, homes and property, and a peaceful life. She always felt living on an island without a glimpse of the Mediterranean around her had been the worst punishment of all. This experience alone seemed to symbolize in her mind the unforgotten fears, abuse, desperation and isolation of those years. She recalled how she had ventured to the northern shore and stared at the sea for the first time after so many years, feeling the cool breeze on her face. The policy of doing away with Turkish Cypriots was by that time being pursued through sever e economic sanctions, this time to squeeze them out of the island. She was then, like the rest of her people, still a hostage in her own homeland.